RTNet: A neural network that exhibits the signatures of human perceptual decision making
Rafiei, F.*, Shekhar, M.*, Rahnev, D. (in revision at Nat Hum Behav)
Preprint available on bioRxiv, Data and Code, Preregistration

Multiple brain activation patterns for the same task
Nakuci, J., Yeon, J., Kim, J.-H., Kim, S.-P., & Rahnev, D. (in revision at Nat Hum Behav)
Preprint available on bioRxiv

Challenging the Bayesian confidence hypothesis
Xue, K., Shekhar, M., & Rahnev, D. (in revision at PNAS)
Preprint available on PsyArXiv, Data and Code, Preregistration

Signatures proposed to index perceptual effects emerge in a purely cognitive task
Chen, S. & Rahnev, D. (in revision at Cognition)
Preprint available on PsyArXiv, Data and Code

Is perception probabilistic? Clarifying the definitions
Rahnev, D., Block, N., Denison, R.N., & Jehee, J. (in revision at Neurons, Behavior, Data analysis, and Theory)
Preprint available on PsyArXiv

Measuring metacognition: A comprehensive assessment of current methods
Rahnev, D. (submitted)
Preprint available on PsyArXiv, Data and Code

Common computations between automatic cue combination and metacognitive confidence judgments
Gao, Y., Xue, K., Odegaard, B., & Rahnev, D. (submitted)
Preprint available on bioRxiv, Data and Code, Preregistration

Dynamic competition between sensory and decisional biases in perceptual decision making
Gao, Y., Chen, S, & Rahnev, D. (submitted)
Preprint available on PsyArXiv, Data and Code

No gender difference in confidence or metacognitive ability in perceptual decision making
Xue, K., Zheng, Y., Papalexandrou, C., Hoogervorst, K., Allen, M., & Rahnev, D. (submitted)
Preprint available on PsyArXiv, Data and Code

Using artificial neural networks to relate external sensory features to internal decisional evidence
Green, M., Hu, M., Denison, R., & Rahnev, D. (submitted)
Preprint available on PsyArXiv, Data and Code

When visual metacognition fails: Widespread anosognosia for visual deficits
Michel, M., Gao, Y., Mazor, M., & Rahnev, D. (submitted)

Human-like dissociations between confidence and accuracy in convolutional neural networks
Shekhar, M. & Rahnev, D. (submitted)
Preprint available on bioRxiv, Data and Code

Gender differences in metacognition: Global and local contrasts in bias and efficiency
Hoogervorst, K., Banellis, L., Fardo, F., Xue, K., Rahnev, D., & Allen, M. (submitted)
Preprint available on PsyArXiv, Data and Code, Preregistration

2024 and in press

Task learning is subserved by a domain-general brain network
Yeon, J., Carlson, A., Rahnev, D.* & D’Esposito, M.* (in press)
Cereb Cortex
Data and Code

Threat expectation does not improve perceptual discrimination despite causing heightened priority processing in the frontoparietal network.
Haddara, N. & Rahnev, D. (in press)
Journal of Neuroscience
Data and Code

How do humans give confidence? A comprehensive comparison of process models of perceptual metacognition
Shekhar, M. & Rahnev, D. (in press)
Journal of Experimental Psychology: General
Data and Code

Think twice: Re-assessing confidence improves visual metacognition
Elosegi, P., Rahnev, D., & Soto, D. (2024)
Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics , 86:373–380
Data and Code


Common computations for metacognition and meta-metacognition
Zheng, Y., Recht, S., & Rahnev, D. (2023)
Neuroscience of Consciousness, 2023(1):niad023
Data and Code

Quantifying the contribution of subject and group factors in brain activation.
Nakuci, J., Yeon, J., Xue, K., Kim, J.-H., Kim, S.-P., & Rahnev, D. (2023)
Cerebral Cortex, 33(22):1109211101.
Data and Code

Brain signatures indexing variation in internal processing during perceptual decision-making
Nakuci, J., Samaha, J., & Rahnev, D. (2023)
iScience, 26(10):107750
Data and Code

The timing of confidence computations in human prefrontal cortex
Xue, K., Zheng, Y., Rafiei, F., & Rahnev, D. (2023)
Cortex , 168:167-175
Data and Code, Preregistration

Confidence response times: Challenging postdecisional models of confidence
Chen, S. & Rahnev, D. (2023)
Journal of Vision 23(7):11
Data and Code

Stimulation along the anterior-posterior axis of lateral frontal cortex reduces visual serial dependence
Bliss, D.P., Rahnev, D., Mackey, W.E., Curtis, C.E., & D’Esposito, M. (2023)
Journal of Vision 23(7):1

Using serial dependence to predict confidence across observers and cognitive domains
Mei, N., Rahnev, D., & Soto, D. (2023)
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Data and Code


3D-printed stand, timing interface, and coil localization tools for concurrent TMS-fMRI experiments
Goldstein, S., Rafiei, F. & Rahnev, D. (2022)
Brain Stimulation 15(5):1290-1291
Code and tool descriptions

TMS does not increase BOLD activity at the site of stimulation: A review of all concurrent TMS-fMRI
Rafiei, F. & Rahnev, D. (2022)
eNeuro 9(4):1-14

The impact of feedback on perceptual decision-making and metacognition: Reduction in bias but no change in sensitivity
Haddara, N & Rahnev, D. (2022)
Psychological Science 33(2):259–275
Data and Code, Preregistration

Across-subject correlation between confidence and accuracy: A meta-analysis of the Confidence Database
Jin, S., Verhaeghen, P., & Rahnev, D. (2022)
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 29(4):1405-1413
Data and Code

Consensus goals for the field of visual metacognition
Rahnev, Dobromir; Balsdon, Tarryn; Charles, Lucie; De Gardelle, Vincent; Denison, Rachel; Desender, Kobe; Faivre, Nathan; Filevich, Elisa; Fleming, Stephen; Jehee, Janneke; Lau, Hakwan; Lee, Alan; Locke, Shannon; Mamassian, Pascal; Odegaard, Brian; Peters, Megan; Reyes, Gabriel; Rouault, Marion; Sackur, Jérôme; Samaha, Jason; Sergent, Claire; Sherman, Maxine Tamara; Siedlecka, Marta; Soto, David; Vlassova, Alexandra; Zylberberg, Ariel (2022)
Perspectives on Psychological Science 17(6):1746-1765
Data and Code


Visual metacognition: Models, measures and neural correlates
Rahnev, D. (2021)
American Psychologist 76(9):1445–1453

A robust confidence–accuracy dissociation via criterion attraction
Rahnev, D. (2021)
Neuroscience of Consciousness 2021(1):niab039
Data and Code

Inferring serial correlation with dynamic background
Wei, S., Xie, Y. & Rahnev, D. (2021)
International Conference on Machine Learning 139:11047-11057

Evidence for transcranial magnetic stimulation induced functional connectivity oscillations in the brain
Vergara, V.M., Rafiei, F., Wokke, M.E., Lau, H., Rahnev, D., Calhoun, V.D. (2021)
Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC) 1407-1411

Response bias reflects individual differences in sensory encoding
Rahnev, D. (2021)
Psychological Science 32(7):1157-11687
Data and Code

Transcranial magnetic stimulation alters multivoxel patterns in the absence of overall activity changes
Rafiei, F., Safrin, M., Wokke, M.E, Lau, H & Rahnev, D. (2021)
Human Brain Mapping 42(12):3804-3820
Data and Code

Examining the robustness of the relationship between metacognitive efficiency and metacognitive bias
Xue, K., Shekhar, M. & Rahnev, D. (2021)
Consciousness and Cognition 95:103196
Data and Code

Awake suppression after brief exposure to a familiar stimulus
Bang, J.W & Rahnev, D. (2021)
Communications Biology 4:348
Data and Code

The nature of metacognitive imperfection in perceptual decision making
Shekhar, M. & Rahnev, D. (2021)
Psychological Review 128:45-70
Data and Code

Qualitative speed-accuracy tradeoff effects that cannot be explianed by the diffusion model under the selective influence assumption
Rafiei, F. & Rahnev, D. (2021)
Scientific Reports 11:45
Data and Code

Sources of metacognitive inefficiency
Shekhar, M. & Rahnev, D. (2021)
Trends in Cognitive Science 25(1):12-23


Overlapping and unique neural circuits support perceptual decision making and confidence
Yeon, J. & Rahnev, D. (2020)
Scientific Reports 10:20761
Data and Code

Confidence in the real world
Rahnev, D. (2020)
Trends in Cognitive Sciences 24(8):590-591

The suboptimality of perceptual decision making with multiple alternatives
Yeon, J. & Rahnev, D. (2020)
Nature Communications 11:3857
Data and Code

The Confidence Database
Rahnev, D., Desender, K., Lee, A.L.F., et al. [83 authors total](2020)
Nature Human Behaviour 4:317-325
Data and Code

Resource-rational analysis versus resource-rational humans
Rahnev, D. (2020)
Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43:e19. [Commentary]


Sensory noise increases metacognitive efficiency
Bang, J.W., Shekhar, M., & Rahnev, D. (2019)
Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 148(3):437-452
Data and Code

Predictive cues reduce but do not eliminate intrinsic response bias
Hu, M. & Rahnev, D. (2019)
Cognition 192:104004
Data and Code

Post-training TMS abolishes performance improvement and releases future learning from interference
Bang, J.W., Milton, D., Sasaki, Y., Watanabe, T., & Rahnev, D. (2019)
Communications Biology 2(1):320
Data and Code

The Bayesian brain: What is it and do humans have it?
Rahnev, D. (2019)
Behavioral and Brain Sciences 42:e238. [Commentary]

How experimental procedures influence estimates of metacognitive ability
Rahnev, D. & Fleming S.M. (2019)
Neuroscience of Consciousness 2019(1):niz009
Data and Code

Resolving age differences in working memory: Removing differences in perceptual ability eliminates age-related working memory deficits
Verhaeghen, P., Geigerman, S., Yang, H., Montoya, A., & Rahnev, D. (2019)
Experimental Aging Research 45(2):120-134

Opportunities and Challenges for a Maturing Science of Consciousness
Michel, M., Beck, D., Block, N., Blumenfeld, H., Brown, R, Carmel, D., Carrasco, M., Chirimuuta, M., Chun, M., Cleeremans, A., Dehaene, S., Fleming, S.M., Frith, C., Haggard, P., He, B., Heyes, C., Goodale, M.A., Irvine, L., Kawato, M., Kentridge, R., King, J.-R., Knight, R.T., Kouider, S., Lamme, V., Lamy, D., Lau, H., Laureys, S., LeDoux, J., Lin, Y.-T., Liu, K., Macknik, S.L., Martinez-Conde, S., Mashour, G.A., Melloni, L., Miracchi, L., Mylopoulos, M., Naccache, L., Owen, A.M., Passingham, R.E., Pessoa, L., Peters, M.A.K., Rahnev, D., Ro, T., Rosenthal, D., Sasaki, Y., Sergent, C., Solovey, G., Schiff, N.D., Seth, A., Tallon-Baudry, C., Tamietto, M., Tong, F., van Gaal, S., Vlassova, A., Watanabe, T., Weisberg, J., Yan, K., Yoshida, M. (2019)
Nature Human Behaviour 3:104-107


Suboptimality in perception decision making
Rahnev, D.* & Denison, R.N.* (2018)
Behavioral and Brain Sciences 41:e223. [Target Article]

Behavior is sensible but not globally optimal: Seeking common ground in the optimality debate
Rahnev, D. & Denison, R.N. (2018)
Behavioral and Brain Sciences 41:e223. [Authors’ Response to Commentaries]

Feature-specific awake reactivation in human V1 after visual training
Bang, J.W., Sasaki, Y., Watanabe, T., & Rahnev, D. (2018)
Journal of Neuroscience 38(45):9648-9657
Data and Code

Distinguishing the roles of dorsolateral and anterior PFC in visual metacognition
Shekhar, M. & Rahnev, D. (2018)
Journal of Neuroscience 38(22):5078-5087
Data and Code

An informal internet survey on the current state of consciousness science
Michel, M., Fleming, S.M., Lau, H., Lee, A.L.F., Martinez-Conde, S., Passingham, R.E., Peters, M.A.K., Rahnev, D., Sergent, C., & Liu, K. (2018)
Frontiers in Psychology 9:2134


Stimulus expectation alters decision criterion but not sensory signal in perceptual decision making
Bang & Rahnev (2017)
Scientific Reports 7:17072
Data and Code

Top-down control of perceptual decision making by the prefrontal cortex
Rahnev (2017)
Current Directions in Psychological Science 26(5):464-469

The case against full probability distributions in perceptual decision making
Rahnev (2017)

Causal evidence for frontal cortex organization for perceptual decision making
Rahnev, Nee, Riddle, Larson, & D’Esposito (2016)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 113(20):6059-6064
Data and Code

Confidence leak in perceptual decision making
Rahnev, Koizumi, McCurdy, D’Esposito, & Lau (2015)
Psychological Science 26(11):1664-1680
Data and Code

Low attention impairs optimal incorporation of prior knowledge in perceptual decisions
Morales, Solovey, Maniscalco, Rahnev, de Lange, & Lau (2015)
Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics 77(6):2021-2036


Continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces resting state connectivity between visual areas
Rahnev, Kok, Munneke, Bahdo, de Lange, & Lau (2013)
Journal of Neurophysiology 110(8):1811-1821

Entrainment of neural activity using transcranial magnetic stimulation
Rahnev (2013)
Journal of Neuroscience 33(28):11325-11326

Pre-stimulus oscillatory activity over motor cortex reflects perceptual expectations
de Lange, Rahnev, Donner, & Lau (2013)
Journal of Neuroscience 33(4):1400-1410


Pre-stimulus hemodynamic activity in dorsal attention network is negatively associated with decision confidence in visual perception
Rahnev, Bahdo, de Lange, & Lau (2012)
Journal of Neurophysiology 108(5):1529-1536

Attention reverses the effect of prediction in silencing sensory signals
Kok, Rahnev, Jehee, Lau, & de Lange (2012)
Cerebral Cortex 22(9):2197-2206

Direct injection of noise to the visual cortex decreases accuracy but increases decision confidence
Rahnev, Maniscalco, Luber, Lau, & Lisanby (2012)
Journal of Neurophysiology 107(6):1556-1563

Subliminal stimuli in the near absence of attention influence top-down cognitive control
Rahnev, Huang, & Lau (2012)
Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics 74(3):521–532

Attention induces conservative subjective biases in visual perception
Rahnev, Maniscalco, Graves, Huang, de Lange, & Lau (2011)
Nature Neuroscience 14(12):1513-1515

Prior expectation modulates the interaction between sensory and prefrontal regions in the human brain
Rahnev, Lau, & de Lange (2011)
Journal of Neuroscience 31(29):10741-10748


Probabilistic model of onset detection explains previous puzzling findings in human time perception
Nikolov*, Rahnev*, & Lau (2010)
Frontiers in Psychology 1:37

Using conjoint analysis to detect discrimination: Revealing covert preferences from overt choices
Caruso, Rahnev, & Banaji (2009)
Social Cognition 27(1):128-137

* authors contributed equally to the work